sâmbătă, 16 martie 2013

TRIANON and Peace in Europe

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY and JAPAN, These Powers being described in the present Treaty as the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, BELGIUM, CHINA, CUBA, GREECE, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, and CZECHO-SLOVAKIA, These Powers constituting with the Principal Powers mentioned above the Allied and Associated Powers, of the one part;
And HUNGARY, of the other part;

 


Whereas on the request of the former Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government an Armistice was granted to Austria-Hungary on November 3, I918, by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, and completed as regards Hungary by the Military Convention of November 13, 1918, in order that a Treaty of Peace might be concluded, andWhereas the Allied and Associated Powers are equally desirous that the war in which certain among them were successively involved, directly or indirectly, against Austria-Hungary, and which originated in the declaration of war by the former Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government on July 28, I914, against Serbia, and in the hostilities conducted by Germany in alliance with Austria-Hungary, should be replaced by a firm, just, and durable Peace, and Whereas the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy has now ceased to exist, and has been replaced in Hungary by a national Hungarian Government: For this purpose the HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:
THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: Mr. Hugh Campbell WALLACE, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States of America at Paris;
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE UNITED STATES OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND AND OF THE BRITISH OOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS, EMPEROR OF INDIA: The Right Honourable Edward George VILLIERS, Earl of DERBY, K.G., P.C., K.C. V.O., C. B., Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of His Britannic Majesty at Paris;
And for the DOMINION of CANADA: The Honourable Sir George Halsey PERLEY, K. C. M. G., High Commissioner for Canada in the United Kingdom;for the COMMONWEALTH of AUSTRALIA. The Right Honourable Andrew FISHER, High Commissioner for Australia in the United Kingdom; for the DOMINION of NEW ZEALAND: The Honourable Sir Thomas MACKENZIE, K.C.M.G., High Commissioner for New Zealand in the United Kingdom; for the UNION of SOUTH AFRICA:Mr. Reginald Andrew BLANKENBERG, O.B.E., Acting High Commissioner for the Union of South Africa in the United Kingdom;
for INDIA:
The Right Honourable Edward George VILLIERS, Earl of DERBY, K.G., P.C., K.C.V.O., C.B., Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of His Britannic Majesty at Paris;
THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC: Mr. Alexandre MILLERAND, President of the Council, Minister for Foreign Affairs; Mr. Frédéric FRANCOIS-MARSAL, Minister of Finance;Mr. Auguste Paul-Louis ISAAC, Minister of Commerce and Industry;Mr. Jules CAMBON, Ambassador of France;Mr. George Maurice PALÉOLOGUE, Ambassador of France, Secretary-General of the Minister for Foreign Affairs;
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY:Count Lelio BONIN LONGARE, Senator of the Kingdom, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of H.M. the King of Italy at Paris Rear Admiral Mario GRASSI;
HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN:Mr. K. MATSUI, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of H.M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris;
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE BELGIANS:Mr. Jules VAN DEN HEUVEL, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Minister of State;Mr. Rolin JACQUEMYNS, Member of the Institute of Private International Law, Secretary-General of the Belgian Delegation;
THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC:Mr. Vikyuin Wellington Koo;Mr. Sao-Ke Alfred SZE;
THE PRESIDENT OF THE CUBAN REPUBLIC:Dr. Rafael Martinez ORTIZ, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Cuban Republic at Paris;
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HELLENES:Mr. Athos ROMANOS, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of H.M. the King of the Hellenes at Paris;
THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF NICARAGUA:Mr. Carlos A. VILLANUEVA, Charg‚ d'Affaires of the Republic of Nicaragua at Paris;
THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA:Mr. Raoul A. AMADOR, Chargé d'Affaires of the Republic of Panama at Paris;
THE PRESIDENT OF THE POLISH REPUBLIC:Prince Eustache SAPIEHA, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Polish Republic at London;Mr. Erasme PILTZ, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Polish Republic at Prague;
THE PRESIDENT OF THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC:Dr. Affonso da COSTA, formerly President of the Council of Ministers;Mr. Joao CHAGAS, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Portuguese Republic at Paris;
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ROUMANIA:Dr. Jon CANTACUZINO, Minister of State;Mr. Nicolae TITULESCU, formerly Minister Secretary of State;
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE SERBS, THE CROATS AND THE SLOVENES:Mr. Nicolas P. PACHITCH, formerly President of the Council of Ministers;Mr. Ante TRUMBIC, Minister for Foreigri Affairs;Mr. Ivan ZOLGER, Doctor of Law;
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF SIAM:His Highness Prince CHAROON, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of H.M. the King of Siam at Paris;
THE PRESIDENT OF THE CZECHO-SLOVAK REPUBLIC:Mr. Edward BENES, Minister for Foreign Affairs;Mr. Stephen OSUSKY, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Czecho-Slovak Republic at London;
HUNGARY:Mr. Gaston de BÉNARD, Minister of Labour and Public Welfare;Mr. Alfred DRASCHE-LAZAR de Thorda, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary;
WHO, having communicated their full powers found in good and due form, HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:From the coming into force of the present Treaty the state of war will terminate.From that moment and subject to the provisions of the present Treaty official relations will exist between the Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary.


PART II. FRONTIERS OF HUNGARY.
ARTICLE 27. The frontiers of Hungary shall be fixed as follows:


3. With Roumania: From the point defined above east-north-eastwards to a point to be selected on the Maros about 3 1/2 kilometres upstream from the railway bridge between Mako and Szeged, a line to be fixed on the ground; thence south-eastwards, and then north-eastwards to a point to be selected about I kilometre south of Nagylak Station, the course of the river Maros upstream; thence north-eastwards to the salient of the administrative boundary between the comitats of Csanad and Arad north-north-west of Nemetpereg, a line to be fixed on the ground passing between Nagylak and the railway station; thence east-north-eastwards to a point to be selected on the ground between Battonya and Tornya, this administrative boundary, passing north of Nemetpereg and Kispereg; thence to point 123 (about 1.2 kilometres east of Magosliget), the point common to the three frontiers of Hungary, Roumania and Czecho-Slovakia (Ruthenian territory), a line to be fixed on the ground passing west of Nagyvarjas, Kisvarjas and Nagyiratos, east of Dombegyhaz, Kevermes and Elek, west of Ottlaka, Nagy-Pel, Gyula-Varsand, Ant and Illye, east of Gyula, Gyula-Vari and Kotegyan, cutting the Nagysza-lonta-Gyula railway about 12 kilometres south-west of Nagysza-lonta and between the two bifurcations formed by the crossing of this line and the Szeghalom-Erdogyarak railway; passing east of Mehkerek, west of Nagyszalonta and Marczihaza, east of Geszt, west of Atyas, Olah-Szt-Miklos and Rojt, east of Ugra and Harsany, west of Korosszeg and Koros-Tarjan, east of Szakal arld Berek-Boszormeny, west of Bors, east of Artand, west of Nagy-Szanto, east of Nagy-Kereki, west of Pelbarthida and Bihardioszeg, east of Kis-Marja, west of Csokaly, east of Nagyleta and Almosd, west of Er-Selind, east of Bagamer, west of Er-Kenez and Ermilhalyfalva east of Szt-Gyorgy-Abrany and Peneszlek, west of Szaniszlo, Bere-Csomakoz, Feny, Csanalos, Borvely and Domahida, east of Vallaj, west of Csenger-Bagos and Ovari, east of Csenger-Ujfalu, west of Dara, east of Csenger and Komlod-Totfalu, west of Pete, east of Nagy-Gecz, west of Szaraz-Berek, east of Mehtelek, Garbolcz and Nagy-Hodos, west of Fertos-Almas, east of Kis-Hodos, west of Nagy-Palad, east of Ki-Palad and Magosliget.



SECTION I I I . ROUMANIA.


ARTICLE 45. Hungary renounces, so far as she is concerned, in favour of Roumania all rights and title over the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy situated outside the frontiers of Hungary as laid down in Article 27, Part II (Frontiers of Hungary) and recognised by the present Treaty, or by any Treaties concluded for the purpose of completing the present settlement, as forming part of Roumania.

ARTICLE 46. A Commission composed of seven members, five nominated by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, one by Roumania, and one by Hungary, will be appointed within fifteen days from the coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the frontier line provided for in Article 27 (3), Part II (Frontiers of Hungary).

ARTICLE 47. Roumania recognises and confirms in relation to Hungary her obligation to accept the embodiment in a Treaty with the Principal Allied and Associated Powers such provisions as may be deemed necessary by these Powers to protect the interests of inhabitants of that State who differ from the majority of the population in race, language or religion, as well as to protect freedom of transit and equitable treatment for the commerce of other nations.The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Hungary which Roumania will have to assume on account of the territory placed under her sovereignty will be determined in accordance with Article 186, Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty.Subsequent agreements will decide all questions which are not decided by the present Treaty and which may arise in consequence of the cession of the said territory
.


SECTION VI. PROTECTION OF MINORITIES.

ARTICLE 54. Hungary undertakes that the stipulations contained in this Section shall be recognised as fundamental laws, and that no law, regulation or official action shall connict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation or official action prevail over them.
ARTICLE 55. Hungary undertakes to assure full and complete protection of life and liberty to all inhabitants of Hungary without distinction of birth, nationality, language, race or religion.All inhabitants of Hungary shall be entitled to the free exercise, whether public or private, of any creed, religion or belief whose practices are not inconsistent with public order or public morals.
ARTICLE 56.Hungary admits and declares to be Hungarian nationals ipso facto and without the requirement of any formality all persons possessing at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty rights of citizenship (pertinenza) within Hungarian territory who are not nationals of any other State.
ARTICLE 57 All persons born in Hungarian territory who are not born nationals of another State shall ipso facto become Hungarian nationals.
ARTICLE 58.All Hungarian nationals shall be equal before the law and shall enjoy the same civil and political rights without distinction as to race, language or religion.Difference of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudice any Hungarian national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil or political rights, as for instance admission to public employments, functions and honours, or the exercise of professions and industries.No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any Hungarian national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in religion, in the press or in publications of any kind, or at public meetings.Notwithstanding any establishment by the Hungarian Government of an official language, adequate facilities shall be given to Hungarian nationals of non-Magyar speech for the use of their language, either orally or in writing before the Courts.Hungarian nationals who belong to racial, religious or linguistic minorities shall enjoy the same treatment and security in law and in fact as the other Hungarian nationals. In particular they shall have an equal right to establish, manage and control at their own expense charitable, religious and social institutions, schools and other educational establishments, with the right to use their own language and to exercise their religion freely therein.
ARTICLE 59.Hungary will provide in the public educational system in towns and districts in which a considerable proportion of Hungarian nationals of other than Magyar speech are resident adequate facilities for ensuring that in the primary schools the instruction shall be given to the children of such Hungarian nationals through the medium of their own language. This provision shall not prevent the Hungarian Government from making the teaching of the Magyar language obligatory in the said schools.In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion of Hungarian nationals belonging to racial, religious or linguistic minorities, these minorities shall be assured an equitable share in the enjoyment and application of sums which may be provided out of public funds under the State, municipal or other budgets, for educational, religious or charitable purposes.
ARTICLE 60.Hungary agrees that the stipulations in the foregoing Articles of this Section, so far as they affect persons belonging to racial, religious or linguistic minorities, constitute obligations of international concern and shall be placed under the guarantee of the League of Nations. They shall not be modified without the assent of a majority of the Council of the League of Nations. The Allied and Associated Powers represented on the Council severally agree not to withhold their assent from any modification in these Articles which is in due form assented to by a majority of the Council of the League of Nations.
Hungary agrees that any Member of the Council of the League of Nations shall have the right to bring to the attention of the Council any infraction, or any danger of infraction, of any of these obligations, and that the Council may thereupon take such action and give such direction as it may deem proper and effective in the circumstances.
Hungary further agrees that any difference of opinion as to questions of law or fact arising out of these Articles between the Hungarian Government and any one of the Allied and Associated Powers or any other Power, a Member of the Council of the League of Nations, shall be held to be a dispute of an international character under Article 14 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. The Hungarian Government hereby consents that any such dispute shall, if the other party thereto demands, be referred to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The decision of the Permanent Court shall be final and shall have the same force and effect as an award under Article 13 of the Covenant.
SECTION VII.CLAUSES RELATING TO NATIONALITY.
ARTICLE 61.
Every person possessing rights of citizenship (pertinenza) in territory which formed part of the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy shall obtain ipso facto to the exclusion of Hungarian nationality the nationality of the State exercising sovereignty over such territory.
ARTICLE 62.Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 61, persons who acquired rights of citizenship after January I, 1910, in territory transferred under the present Treaty to the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, or to the Czecho-Slovak State, will not acquire Serb-Croat-Slovene or Czecho-Slovak nationality without a permit from the Serb-Croat-Slovene State or the Czecho-Slovak State respectively. If the permit referred to in the preceding paragraph is not applied for, or is refused, the persons concerned will obtain ipso facto the nationality of the State exercising sovereignty over the territory in which they previously possessed rights of citizenship.
ARTICLE 63.Persons over 18 years of age losing their Hungarian nationality and obtaining ipso facto a new nationality under Article 61 shall be entitled within a period of one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty to opt for the nationality of the State in which they possessed rights of citizenship before acquiring such rights in the territory-transferred.Option by a husband will cover his wife and option by parents will cover their children under 18 years of age.
Persons who have exercised the above right to opt must within the succeeding twelve months transfer their place of residence to the State for which they have opted.They will be entitled to retain their immovable property in the territory of the other State where they had their place of residence before exercising their right to opt.They may carry with them their movable property of every description. No export or import duties may be imposed upon them in connection with the removal of such property.
ARTICLE 64. Persons possessing rights of citizenship in territory forming part of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and differing in race and language from the majority of the population of such territory, shall within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty severally be entitled to opt for Austria, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Roumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, or the Czecho-Slovak State, if the majority of the population of the State selected is of the same race and language as the person exercising the right to opt. The provisions of Article 63 as to the exercise of the right of option shall apply to the right of option given by this Article.
ARTICLE 65. The High Contracting Parties undertake to put no hindrance in the way of the exercise of the right which the persons concerned have under the present Treaty, or under treaties concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers with Germany, Austria or Russia, or between any of the Allied and Associated Powers themselves, to choose any other nationality which may be open to them.
ARTICLE 66.For the purposes of the provisions of this Section, the status of a married woman will be governed by that of her husband, and the status of children under 18 years of age by that of their parents.
.....................................

ARTICLE I00.Hungary agrees, so far as she is concerned, to the abrogation of the leases from the Chinese Government under which the AustroHungarian Concession at Tientsin is now held.
China, restored to the full exercise of her sovereign rights in the above area, declares her intention of opening it to international residence and trade. She further declares that the abrogation of the leases under which the said concession is now held sh:lll not affect the property rights of nationals of Allied and Associated Powers who are holders of lots in this concession.
ARTICLE 101 Hungary waives all claims against the Chinese Government or against any Allied or Associated Government arising out of the internment of Hungarian nationals in China and their repatriation. She equally renounces, so far as she is concerned, all claims arising out of the capture and condemnation of Austro-Hungarian ships in China, or the liquidation, sequestration or control oE Hungarian properties, rights and interests in that country since August 14, 1917. This provision, however, shall not affect the rights of the parties interested in the proceeds of any such liquidation, which shall be governed by the provisions of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty


 
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